Understanding the Different Types of Taxes in the United States

Taxes in the United States are primarily levied on income, sales, and property. As shown in Figure 1 below, taxes on individual and corporate income account for nearly half of the total U. S. tax revenue.

Another quarter is represented by Social Security receipts, a source of federal taxes. Many individual income taxes are “progressive”, meaning that tax rates increase as taxpayer income increases, causing people with higher incomes to pay more of their income taxes. Payroll taxes are taxes paid on employees' salaries and wages to fund social security programs. Most taxpayers will become familiar with payroll taxes by looking at their pay receipt at the end of each pay period, which clearly indicates the amount of payroll tax withheld by their employer from their income. In the United States, half of payroll taxes (7.65 percent) are remitted directly by employers, and the other half is withheld from employee paychecks. Although approximately half of payroll taxes are paid by employers, the economic burden of payroll taxes falls mainly on workers in the form of lower wages.

When applied to profits earned on stocks, capital gains taxes cause the same dollar to be taxed twice, also known as double taxation. This is because corporate profits are already subject to corporate income tax. Not all authorities collect the same types of taxes. Income taxes are the largest source of revenue for the federal government and account for more than 40% of annual tax revenues. And according to projections by the Congressional Budget Office, income taxes, as well as social security taxes, should continue to account for the majority of the U.

Income taxes can be collected at the federal, state and local levels. At the federal level, the amount paid depends on several factors, including income and marital status. The United States has a progressive tax system, which consists of seven tax brackets. For every additional dollar in a new category, the tax rate for that category is paid. There are also a number of credits.

On one hand, the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) provides a tax credit to people with low and moderate incomes. Sales taxes are taxes on goods and services purchased. They are usually calculated as a percentage of the price paid. Sales taxes vary by state and even by municipality. In some states, there are no sales taxes at either the state or local levels.

Other states and local authorities may charge a significant amount. In Tennessee, for example, consumers can pay up to 9.44% in sales taxes by combining state and local taxes, according to the Tax Foundation. In 12 states, sales taxes exceed 8%. Sales taxes are often considered regressive, meaning that low-income individuals and households spend a greater proportion of their income paying the tax compared to higher-income residents. Excise taxes are similar to general sales taxes, except they are levied on specific goods.

States often tax certain purchases such as gasoline, cigarettes, beer and liquor. Excise taxes are frequently applied to so-called products derived from sin and are often intended not only to help raise money but also to deter unhealthy behavior. The federal government also collects those taxes which include 18.4 cents per gallon for gasoline and 24.4 cents per gallon for diesel fuel as well as a 10% charge for tanning services. Excise taxes are often combined with sales taxes in a single purchase. According to Lundeen, in many cases a sales tax is paid in addition to an excise tax.

Short-term capital gains (on assets sold one year or less after their acquisition) are taxed at the owner's ordinary income tax rate while long-term gains on assets held for more than a year are taxed at a lower capital gains rate depending on the reason that lower taxes will encourage higher levels of investment capital. In fact when you count all taxes (federal state and local income taxes (corporate and individual) property taxes Social Security taxes sales taxes excise taxes and others Americans spend 29.2 percent of our income on taxes each year. Tax records must be maintained to verify the duration of the property when the assets were sold and the tax return was filed. For example governments can impose a special tax on cigarettes in the hope of reducing consumption and associated health care costs or an additional carbon tax to curb pollution. Payroll taxes and income taxes are different although both are withheld from the employee's paycheck and remitted to the government Those who oppose these types of taxes believe that they are an unfair confiscation of wealth transferred to an heir and call them “inheritance taxes”.From an accounting perspective there are several types of taxation to consider including payroll taxes federal and state income taxes and sales taxes In general taxes on real estate are relatively stable neutral and transparent while those on tangible personal property are more problematic Excise taxes are those imposed on a specific good or activity usually in addition to a large consumption tax and represent a relatively small and volatile part of total tax revenues The federal government also has a much lower exemption level for gift tax than for wealth tax.

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